يجب الاعتراف بأن موضوع التنمية بالغ التراكيبة والتعقيد حيث يكاد يتعذر تحديد نطاقه ومساحته. وإذا بدأنا بما يتبادر عادة إلى الذهن من أن التنمية إنما هي في المجال الاقتصادي، ظهرت الأسئلة المتعلقة بما يجب أن تكون هذه التنمية، صناعية أم تجارية أم زراعية.. وسرعان ما يتبين أن هذا الأمر متعلق ببيئية البلد وموارده الطبيعية؛ ويتلو ذلك مباشرة السؤال عن المهارات المحلية والمستويات العلمية المتوفرة في هذا البلد. ثم تتبادر إلى الذهن مسائل التنافس الإقليمي والعالمي ودور الجغرافية السياسية في كل ذلك. أي أنه بدون عناء كبير في التفكير، يدرك المرء أن التنمية التي تبدو لأول وهلة أنها قضية اقتصادية بحتة، تتعلق لزوماً بمجالات كثيرة على رأسها حقول السياسة والتعليم والعلاقات الدولية والبيئة.. إلخ، هذا إذا اقتصرنا على الأوجه العملية عند التفكير بمسألة التنمية.
أما إذا استحضرنا الأوجه الأكثر تجريداً لمفهوم التنمية لوجدنا أنفسنا نطرح أسئلة عن معنى هذا المفهوم وحدوده وارتباط مقتضياته بالجذور الثقافية والشاكلة الحضارية، وما هو نوع التنمية المطلوبة وما هو المحكّ الذي يجعلها مطلوبة ممدوحة أو متروكة مذمومة.
إقرأ المقال: Tanmiyah_Rashidah
Levels of Knowledge and Interculturation:
Implications for Development and for the Islamization of Knowledge
The paper develops a classificatory scheme of knowledge output: the philosophy level, the theory level, the model level, and the application level. I will use this scheme to illuminate on four, seemingly unrelated, issues: 1) While development is frequently seen as a mechanical process of low level structuration or culturation, this paper argues that it involves philosophical dimensions too. 2) Development involves drawing on the products of “advanced” nations. Using the suggested scheme shows that this is possible only at the lower levels of knowledge. 3) Sustained development requires first a theoretical base built along the lines of the Islamization of Knowledge logic. And 4) The concept of the Islamization of Knowledge is misinterpreted by casual readers as an out-right rejection of modern “scientific” output. This paper argues that the Islamization of Knowledge is a digestive process that calls for the interaction of world cultures guided by a specific philosophical prism.
Read the paper: Levels of Knowledge and Interculturation
Social Capital, Civil Society, and the Question of Values
The rising interest in the idea of civil society in the last decade highlights the problematic place of values in social sciences. Social sciences, seeking scientificity through mostly empirical verification and positivistic methods, presented themselves as the neutral guarantor of a free society, punctuated by a rationalized concept of societal institutions and human behavior. On the other hand, social experience continuously provides compelling evidence on the solidity and viability of the “natural social order” in which values are central. The concept of civil society and social capital were reincarnated only to face the perennial question of values. The inevitability of thinking in terms of values, where do they come from, and how they govern modern societies was asserted again.
This paper is two-fold. First, it provides a brief critical review of the concepts of civil society and social capital, highlighting their sidelining of values. Second, the paper argues that re-incorporating values into social sciences can be achieved through reclaiming meta-values that: (1) attune to moral, and not just utilitarian concerns, (2) assume historical validity, and (3) are conceptualized simultaneously at the individual and the collective levels. Thinking in terms of meta-values, this paper asserts, has the promise for a renewed vision of a just social order.
Read the paper: CivilSoc-SocCapital-Values
American-Muslims and the Muted Debate on Internal Pluralism
The rainbow of Muslim diversity in the US is continuously adding new colors, and the collective identity of American Muslims is evolving as their lives unfold within varied experiences. While diversity on the ground should ideally be matched with perceptual schemes for coordinating such diversity, the discourse on pluralism among American Muslims oscillates between two utopian visions: hygienic Islamic unity and hygienic Americanism.
In the case of Muslims, the paper envisions a virtual moral community that rises above minority centrism and ethnic politics, a community in which universality forms its perceptual framework, Islamic ethics constitute its organizing principles, and ethnicity acts as meaning and experience placeholder. Such imagined community would concurrently embrace American life and relish in hybrid cultural heritages.
Culture, in reference to the fate of minority groups, stands for a three-pronged generative resource that functions as: (1) a meaning system that coaches group members’ motivation and the perception of their lived reality, furnishing an imaginative space of peoplehood; (2) a locus of connectedness that anchors individuals to social structure and coalesces groups’ efforts toward collective goals; and (3) a conduit for crucial social information that fosters economically facilitative norms.
The paper proceeds to focus on the case of American Muslims and how crucial for them to appreciate their own internal diversity. After a brief discussion of post-911 assimilation pressures, the paper develops an integration model that is more consistent with the realities of the Muslim communities in the US.
Read the paper: American Muslims-pluralism muted
American Muslims represent a normative minority, yet, they live in a reality where race and ethnicity loom large. This paper argues that the ethnic dynamics of the American life are highly meaningful in explaining American Muslim reality and their future. Those dynamics include cultural and structural dimensions, which call for a conceptualization of the varied paths of integration that Muslims can potentially assume. Informed by the trajectories of American ethnic minorities, this paper asserts that the integration of a minority group within the majority society is a dynamic process of negotiation. While economics and politics carve structural niches for minorities, their lived reality is ultimately determined by the interaction between the material conditions of those structural niches and the cultural webs in which the collective souls of minority members reside. To analyze such complex terms of integration, the paper revisits the conceptualization of ethnicity, synthesizing elements from the primordial and the constructivist perspectives—interests and circumstances that mold the lives of minority groups are acknowledged as well as the symbolic qualities of their shared memories. Similarly, in order to account adequately for the otherwise fluid use of the concept of culture, the paper differentiates between cultural preservation, cultural maintenance, and cultural resilience. Those represent three strategies in which a minority manages its culture in reference to the pervasive societal culture. The stance of the dominant majority and its view of the minority are also considered. The paper argues that the combination of structural violence reflected in the depreciation of the minority’s material resources, and cultural violence reflected in the devaluation of symbolic capital, lead to the decay of the communities, pushing them into a vicious circle of social decay. The main contribution of the paper lies in theorizing how the well-being of a minority group is predicated upon the level of its cultural reliance.
Read the paper: American Muslims-cultural resilience